Liberal Studies: Environmental Emphasis

Program Overview

The Bachelor of Arts Degree in Liberal Studies: Environmental Emphasis is designed specifically as a second major for students in the School of Education interested in teaching science in elementary schools. The program is tailored to meet the interdisciplinary science objectives of elementary education majors and to facilitate the timely completion of their dual requirements in the School of Education and the School of Liberal Arts and Sciences. This program is not designed to prepare students for further study in science disciplines at the graduate or professional level, or to teach science at the middle or high school level. Students who may wish to teach science at the high school level should discuss the additional certification requirements needed with their School of Education academic advisor.

Curriculum Overview

The curriculum for this major focuses on the interdisciplinary nature of the environment by offering classes that give students a strong basis of science preparatory material while also offering a unique, interdisciplinary, hands on approach to learning. Students take introductory courses in foundational classes in chemistry, physics, biology, environmental sciences and geosciences, followed by more in-depth course work focused on the environmental sciences. 

Honors Program in Liberal Studies: Environmental Emphasis

Graduation with honors in Liberal Studies: Environmental Emphasis is awarded in recognition of majors who have demonstrated outstanding academic ability. Enrollment in the program is by invitation of the faculty of the Department of Geological, Environmental, and Marine Sciences (GEMS). Eligibility requirements include a minimum GPA of 3.5 in courses required for the major and the satisfactory completion of a three- or four-credit independent research and study course. In addition an honors candidate must maintain an overall minimum GPA of 3.0.

Degrees Offered

  • B.A. in Liberal Studies: Environmental Emphasis

Contact

Jonathan M. Husch, Ph.D.
Professor and GEMS Chair 
Science and Technology Center 323D
609-896-5330
husch@rider.edu

Program Website:  Liberal Studies: Environmental Emphasis
Associated Department: Department of Geological, Environmental, and Marine Sciences (GEMS)

Related Programs 

Liberal Studies: Environmental Major Requirements

(49 credits)

Core Requirements42-43
See LAS Core Page
Geological and Marine Sciences
ENV 100Introduction to Environmental Sciences4
ENV 200Statistical and Computer Applications in the Natural Sciences4
ENV 205Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (also cross listed as GLS-205)3
ENV 220Weather and Climate Change3
GEO 100Earth Systems Science3
or GEO 113 Environmental Geology (also cross listed as GLS-113)
GEO 102Earth Materials and Processes Lab1
GEO 350Soil and Surficial Processes4
GEO 407Hydrology and Water Resources4
Biology
BIO 115Principles of Biology I4
BIO 116Principles of Biology II4
Chemistry
CHE 120Principles of Chemistry3
CHE 121Principles of Chemistry Lab1
Physics
PHY 100Principles of Physics I3
PHY 100LPrinciples of Physics I Lab1
Electives Group A
Select one of the following:4
Intro to Marine Biology
and Marine Biology Laboratory
Plant Biology
General Ecology
Behavior of Marine Organisms: Evolutionary Approach
Introduction to Field Marine Science: Subtropical Environments
Introduction to Field Marine Science: Boreal Environments
Introduction to Field Marine Science: Tropical Environments
The Learning and Teaching of Marine Science
Marine Ecology
Electives Group B
Select one of the following:3
America and the Future
Technology and Science in America
Honors Sem: Natural Adventures
Honors Seminar: Science and Politics of the Jersey Shoreline
Honors Seminar: The Environment: a Conflict of Interest
Nature's Business
Philosophy of Science
Global Politics
Environmental Policy
Comparative Environmental Policy
Population Study
Total Credits91-92

Majors will also take either MTH 105 or MTH 210 to fulfill their math core requirement. Upper-level MAR courses require MAR 120 and MAR 121 as prerequisites.

Academic Plan of Study

The following educational plan is provided as a sample only.  Rider students who do not declare a major during their freshman year; who change their major; or those who transfer to Rider may follow a different plan to ensure a timely graduation.  Each student, with guidance from his or her academic advisor, will develop a personalized educational plan.

Plan of Study Grid
Year 1
Fall SemesterSemester Credit Hours
CMP 120 Expository Writing 1 3
MAR 120 Oceanography 3
MAR 121 Introductory Oceanography Lab 1
BIO 115 Principles of Biology I 4
BIO 115L Principles of Biology I Lab 0
MTH 105 Algebra and Trigonometry 1 4
NCT 010 Freshman Seminar 0
 Semester Credit Hours15
Spring Semester
CMP 125 Research Writing 3
Select one of the following: 3
Earth Systems Science  
Environmental Geology (also cross listed as GLS-113)  
GEO 102 Earth Materials and Processes Lab 1
BIO 116 Principles of Biology II 4
BIO 116L Principles of Biology II Lab 0
Foreign Language Core Course (Level 1) 3
 Semester Credit Hours14
Year 2
Fall Semester
CHE 120 Principles of Chemistry 3
CHE 121 Principles of Chemistry Lab 1
ENV 200 Statistical and Computer Applications in the Natural Sciences 4
HIS 150 World History to 1500 3
Foreign Language Core Course (Level 2) 3
 Semester Credit Hours14
Spring Semester
ENV 220 Weather and Climate Change 3
One Group A or Group B Elective Course 3
HIS 151 World History Since 1500 3
Social Science Core Course (1 of 2) 3
Select one of the following: 3
Any Philosophy (PHL) Course
 
Philosophy of Martin Luther King Jr.  
 Semester Credit Hours15
Year 3
Fall Semester
PHY 100 Principles of Physics I 3
PHY 100L Principles of Physics I Lab 1
ENV 205 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (also cross listed as GLS-205) 3
Fine Arts Core Course 3
Social Science Course (2 of 2) 3
English Literature Core Course 3
 Semester Credit Hours16
Spring Semester
Select one of the following: 4
Soil and Surficial Processes  
Hydrology and Water Resources  
One Group A or Group B Elective Course 3
Three Elective Courses 2 9
 Semester Credit Hours16
Summer Semester
MAR 227 Introduction to Field Marine Science: Subtropical Environments 4
 Semester Credit Hours4
Year 4
Fall Semester
PHY 101 Principles of Physics II 3
PHY 101L Principles of Physics II Lab 1
One Group A or Group B Elective, if needed, or One Elective Course 3
Three Elective Courses 2 9
 Semester Credit Hours16
Spring Semester
Select one of the following: 4
Soil and Surficial Processes  
Hydrology and Water Resources  
One Group A or Group B Elective, if needed, or One Elective Course 3
Three Elective Courses 2 9
 Semester Credit Hours16
 Total Credit Hours for Graduation126

Note: Natural and Physical Science core requirepemts are included in the major.

1

 For course placement information see http://www.rider.edu/offices-services/orientation/course-placement

2

 Please note that elective credits may be used to complete requirements in a second major or minor.

Courses and Descriptions

BIO 100 Life Science:Human Emphasis 3 Credits

An examination of mammalian physiology and development at the cellular and organ system level, with emphasis on physiological homeostasis in man. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 101 Life Science:Genetics Emphasis 3 Credits

An examination of cell biology and genetics, with emphasis on the impact of these fields on human affairs. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 103 Life Sci:Ecobotanical Emphasis 3 Credits

Plant biology with emphasis on ecological interactions and economic uses. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 105 Life Science and Society 3 Credits

This course will highlight current scientific knowledge and the state of ongoing inquiry in often-misunderstood topics related to health and medicine. Topics will include, but are not limited to, stem cells, embryo editing, vaccination, genetic modification of food and animals, and the process of drug development. Throughout this course, students will learn basic cell biology and genetics as a foundation for scientific understanding in itself as well as how to detect misconceptions and myths related to science, healthcare, and medicine.

BIO 106 Life Science:Human Disease 3 Credits

An introduction to molecular, cellular, and human biology with emphasis upon diseases and disorders caused by mutation, bacteria, viruses, or parasites. The biology of human aging is also discussed. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 108 Life Sci: Biol of Human Aging 3 Credits

An introduction to the biology of aging manifest in the cells, tissues, and organs of animals and humans. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIO 109 From the Big Bang to Origins of Life 3 Credits

This course is a non-major science core course focusing on the interactions among astronomy/physics, chemistry, geology and biology. A consensus story has emerged about our origins from scientific insights obtained over the last 400 years. Many know this story that began with the Big Bang and proceeded through the origin of the galaxies and the origin of the elements to the origin of our sun, earth and solar system. The origin of the earth gave rise to the origin of life, evolution of bacteria, viruses, plants and animals, creation of ecosystems and ultimately the evolution of humans. We will proceed through the science slowly. By doing so we can take the information from all of the sciences and reflect upon it. The result of will be an enhanced appreciation for both the process of science and the awesome information we have learned about the natural world as well as ourselves. The study of our origins reveals that humans, all life, and our planet are intimately related.

BIO 110 Life Science: Inquiry Approach 4 Credits

An introductory course for non-science majors in which students develop an understanding of biological evolution, the molecular basis of heredity, the cell, matter, energy and organization in living systems, and the interdependence of organisms. In addition, students will develop an understanding of science as a human endeavor, the nature of scientific knowledge, and historical perspectives. Through investigative activities, students will develop an understanding about scientific inquiry and develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite(s): BIO 110L.

BIO 110L Life Sci: Inquiry Approach Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 110.

BIO 115 Principles of Biology I 4 Credits

An introductory biology course focusing on major themes of biology: what is life?; Cells as fundamental structure and functional unit of life; information transmission, storage and retrieval; Diversity and unity of life explained by evolution. Three hours of lecture and one three- hour lab per week.

Corequisite(s): BIO 115L.

BIO 115L Principles of Biology I Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 115.

BIO 116 Principles of Biology II 4 Credits

An introductory biology course focusing on major themes of biology: Energy and matter to carry out life's essential functions; Interdependent relationships characterize biological systems (homeostasis, growth & development); Behavior of living things; Ecology and the environment. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite(s): BIO 116L.

BIO 116L Principles of Biology II Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 116.

BIO 206 The Pharmaceutical Industry 3 Credits

An introduction to drug discovery and development. Topics include how drugs are used to diagnose, cure, treat, and prevent disease and how drugs affect body function. The origins of diseases and the early attempts at treatment are also covered. Designed for business majors; does not satisfy requirements for the biology major.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 100 or BIO 101 or BIO 106 or BIO 108 or BNS 107 or CHE 115.

BIO 210 Hospital Intern Program 2 Credits

An internship that provides students with the experience in the practical aspects of medicine. Major departments in the hospital such as the emergency room, operating room, clinic, radiology, and the laboratory will be open for student rotations. Field trips to various medical schools in the area will provide information on professional school educational opportunities available in the health professions.

Prerequisite(s): sophomore standing or above and permission of instructor.

BIO 215 Medical Microbiology 4 Credits

Biology of prokaryotes of medical interest with emphasis placed on diversity and host-pathogen interaction. Current research literature will be covered and presented by students. Methods of microbial identification are introduced in the laboratory and applied in the identification of mock clinical isolates. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115/115L and BIO 116/116L.

Corequisite(s): BIO 215L.

BIO 215L Microbiology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 215.

BIO 221 Human Anatomy & Physiology I 4 Credits

A comprehensive survey of the structure and function of musculo-skeletal systems, neuroendocrine systems and related tissues and cellular interactions. Physiological applications include homeostasis, muscle dynamics, and cell activities. Laboratory exercises complement lecture material through the use of animal dissections, wet labs, computer-assisted investigations, microscopy, and models. Exams, case histories, personal investigations, and lab practicums assess learning. Course emphasis supports allied health and pre-professional training. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Designed for allied health students; does not satisfy requirements for the biology major. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115.

Corequisite(s): BIO 221L.

BIO 221L Human Anatomy & Physiology I Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 221.

BIO 222 Human Anatomy & Physiology II 4 Credits

A comprehensive survey of the organ systems of the body including special senses, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, reproduction and development. Physiological components include electrolytes, metabolism, nutrition, and the mechanisms of homeostasis and cell reception. Lab studies support lecture material through dissections, wet labs, computer-assisted learning, microscopy, and models. Assessment includes lab practicums, exams, and reports. Course emphasis supports allied health and pre-professional training. Designed for allied health students; does not satisfy requirements for the biology major. Prerequisite(s): BIO 221.

Corequisite(s): BIO 222L.

BIO 222L Human Anatomy & Phys II Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course. Prerequisite(s): BIO 221L.

Corequisite(s): BIO 222.

BIO 260 Principles of Biology: Evolution, Diversity, and Biology of Cells 4 Credits

Lectures and labs focus on basic cell biology. Cell diversity and function, genetics and biotechnology are emphasized. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115 & BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): BIO 260L.

BIO 260L Principle of Biology: Cells Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 260.

BIO 265 Genetics 4 Credits

A comprehensive course focusing on molecular, Mendelian, and population genetics. Topics covered will include molecular advances in the study of genetics, including genomics and bioinformatics; evolution and the effects of genetic mutations; the application of population genetics to forensic science; genetic problem solving, including genetic crosses and statistical analysis; and regulation of gene expression. The laboratory for this course will introduce students to commonly used genetic model organisms and basic molecular biology techniques. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): BIO 265L.

BIO 265L Genetics Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 265.

BIO 272 Intro to Marine Biology 3 Credits

Introduces students to the study of marine environments, emphasizing the diversity, ecology, and physiology of marine animals, algae, and plants. Aspects of the human impact on marine environments are also discussed. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115 or BIO 116 or BNS 118 and grade of "C" or better.

Corequisite(s): BIO 272L.

BIO 272L Marine Biology Laboratory 1 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 272.

BIO 290 Special Topics in Biology 3 Credits

BIO 300 Developmental Biology 4 Credits

Lectures and laboratories explore molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms of animal development. Aspects of gametogenesis, fertilization, induction, cytoplasmic determinants, morphogenetic movements, differentiation and developmental evolution are discussed. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): BIO 300L.

BIO 300L Developmental Biology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 300.

BIO 305 Vertebrate Physiology 4 Credits

Study of the principles and mechanisms of mammalian physiology. Topics include the nervous system, muscle physiology, cardiovascular physiology, respiration, gastrointestinal activity, renal function, and endocrine physiology. Lectures and laboratory exercises emphasize homeostatic mechanisms and organ-system interactions. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): BIO 305L.

BIO 305L Vertebrate Physiology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 305.

BIO 315 Medical Microbiology 4 Credits

Biology of prokaryotes of medical interest with emphasis placed on diversity and host- pathogen interaction. Current research literature will be covered and presented by students. Methods of microbial identification are introduced in the laboratory and applied in the identification of mock clinical isolates. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116 or BNS 118, BIO 117.

Corequisite(s): BIO 315L.

BIO 315L Microbiology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 315.

BIO 321 Microbiology 4 Credits

An introduction to the discipline of microbiology, with an emphasis on the biology of prokaryotes found in all the natural realms of our environment, including the oceans, soil, atmosphere, and extreme habitats. Emphasis will be placed on microbial diversity, fundamental microbial processes, and the continual interaction between microbes and the natural environment. Classical and modern methods of identification are introduced in the laboratory. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Some field trips are required. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): BIO 321L.

BIO 321L Microbiology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 321.

BIO 335 Plant Biology 4 Credits

Biology of seed plants, including growth, development, and reproduction of flowering plants. Emphasis is placed on acclimation and adaptations demonstrating environmental influences on plant structure and function. Current literature involving molecular mechanisms of control will be discussed. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. One Saturday field trip. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116, CHE 122.

Corequisite(s): BIO 335L.

BIO 335L Modern Plant Biology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 335.

BIO 340 Evolutionary Biology 4 Credits

Where did we come from? This course will explore the generation of biological diversity on earth. Course topics will include: the history of evolutionary thought; the different lines of evidence and fields of inquiry that bear on our understanding of evolution; selection vs. random changes in populations over time; speciation; extinction; the molecular basis of evolution; and evolutionary developmental biology. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116, BIO 260, BIO 265.

Corequisite(s): BIO 340L.

BIO 340L Evolutionary Biology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course. Corequiste(s): BIO 340.

BIO 350 General Ecology 4 Credits

An investigation of the processes that regulate the distribution of plants and animals throughout the biosphere. Relationships among species and their interactions with the environment are stressed. Quantitative analyses of experimental results and current research in basic and applied ecology are discussed. Laboratory activities explore conceptual models using both field activities and computer simulations. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. One Saturday field trip (laboratory time will be adjusted accordingly). Prerequisite(s): Two of the following: ENV 100 with a grade of “B” or better; BIO 115, BIO 116, with a grade of “C” or better in each course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 350L.

BIO 350L General Ecology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 350.

BIO 370 Immunology 4 Credits

An introduction to the cells and molecules of the immune system with emphasis on recent advances. Topics include AIDS, autoimmunity, transplantation, and cancer. Readings from current journals will be discussed and presented by students. The laboratory will introduce current research techniques and then apply these to a research problem with critical analyses of the data generated. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): BIO 370L.

BIO 370L Immunology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 370.

BIO 372 Behavior of Marine Organisms: Evolutionary Approach 4 Credits

An examination of the underlying mechanisms and evolutionary causes of behavior, including habitat use, feeding, and mate choice, particularly in marine organisms. The laboratory will involve collecting, analyzing and interpreting field data and performing experiments in the lab using a variety of marine organisms including fish and crabs. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Some full-day field trips (usually on a weekend) are required. Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): BIO 372L.

BIO 372L Beh Mar Org: Evol Apprch Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): BIO 372.

BIO 400 Seminar in Cellular and Molecular Biology 3 Credits

Critical analysis of the scientific literature pertaining to current topics in cell and molecular biology. Topics may include: genomics, regulation of gene expression, development, and molecular processes of disease. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116, BIO 260, junior standing, and permission of instructor.

BIO 416 Bioinformatics 3 Credits

A comprehensive overview of relevant computer-based technologies used in genome research, DNA sequence analysis, and evolutionary biology. Will focus extensively on Internet resources and predictive algorithm usage for determining evolutionary relationships of organisms based on molecular evidence. Lectures will focus on terms and concepts frequently used in genomic and bioinformatic research, while computer labs will allow students to perform hands-on projects with actual DNA sequence data.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116, BIO 260, BIO 265 (recommended); Junior standing or Permission of the Chairperson.

BIO 420 Seminar in Organismal Biology 3 Credits

Critical analysis of the scientific literature pertaining to current topics in physiology and organismal biology. Topics may include hormonal control of behavior, immune pathogen interactions, and other aspects of whole animal and/or plant biology. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116; junior standing, and permission of instructor.

BIO 450 Seminar in Ecology & Evolution 3 Credits

Critical analysis of the scientific literature pertaining to current topics in ecology and evolutionary biology. Ecology and evolution of terrestrial and aquatic systems may include scales of adaptation, mechanisms, or human impacts. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 115, BIO 116; junior standing, and permission of instructor.

BIO 490 Independent Research and Study 1-4 Credits

Immerses the student in field or laboratory research. The student learns to organize material, use the literature, make precise measurements, and obtain reproducible data. If possible, the student will publish the results or present them at a scientific meeting.

BIO 491 Internship in Biology 1-4 Credits

A supervised work experience in an approved organization where qualified students gain real-world knowledge and utilize their academic training in a professional environment. Placement may be in private, public, non-profit, or governmental organizations. These can include educational or research institutions. The method of evaluation will be formalized prior to the approval of the internship by the sponsoring faculty and should include keeping a journal of activities, a term paper or project report and a poster presentation. 2.5 GPA required.

Prerequisite(s): Permission of the instructor.

ENV 100 Introduction to Environmental Sciences 4 Credits

Examines how ecosystems function, with emphasis on the interactions between biological organisms and their physical environment, and the chemical processes that govern these interactions. The impact of human populations on natural ecosystems is investigated in detail using case studies from history and current events. The laboratory provides for hands-on experiences and/or short field trips to local sites for a better understanding of many of the concepts discussed. Weekday and weekend field trips may be required. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite(s): ENV 100L.

ENV 100L Introduction to Environmental Sciences Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): ENV 100.

ENV 200 Statistical and Computer Applications in the Natural Sciences 4 Credits

This course introduces important statistical concepts, their application, and the usage of computer technology relevant to biological, environmental, geological, and marine problems. Students will learn various graphical and statistical techniques and how to execute them on personal computers. The curriculum emphasizes the integrated nature of these techniques and their importance to meaningful data evaluation and representation. Laboratory exercises are designed to emphasize useful solutions to problems found in many scientific disciplines using computer-based methodologies. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite(s): ENV 200L.

ENV 200L Statistical and Computer Applicatons in the Natural Sciences Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): ENV 200.

ENV 205 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (also cross listed as GLS-205) 3 Credits

This course introduces the computer-based concepts and skills of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It covers the basic GIS concepts, such as map characteristics and projections, spatial data models and analysis, and relational databases. It explores data sources, data quality, and metadata, as well as implementation and management of specific GIS projects. Hands-on experience with ArcGIS software is provided through a series of student exercises completed throughout the semester. Students will also be taught how to process both vector and raster data using ArcGIS software. The course is relevant for students from numerous disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and business, which require the analysis and graphical representation of spatial data. Three hours of lecture per week. Note: This course is cross-listed as GLS 205. Students may not receive credit for both ENV 205 and GLS 205.

ENV 220 Weather and Climate Change 3 Credits

This course introduces students to the concepts of weather and climate change. These concepts frame a continuum from short-term or daily changes in the atmosphere (meteorology) to those changes averaged over much longer periods of time (climatology). Students will learn the fundamentals of weather forecasting, the causes of natural variation in the Earth’s climate, and the impact of human actions on the Earth’s climate. Connections will be drawn to other current issues in the Earth system, including land use change, biodiversity, and pollution. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 or permission of instructor.

ENV 290 Directed Research and Study in Environmental Sciences 1-4 Credits

Provides an opportunity for freshman and sophomore students to gain hands-on research experience in the environmental sciences. This is an individual program of study and each student will work with a selected faculty member on a topic of mutual interest. The course consists of a combination of project meetings, supervised research, and guided readings. The focus will be on formulating research questions, designing and conducting experiments, collecting the necessary data, reviewing the scientific literature as it relates to each student’s research topic in weekly meetings with the instructor, and communicating the findings by writing a final project report.

ENV 340 Environmental Field Methods and Data Analysis 3 Credits

This course will provide students with practical experience in field methods and data analyses within the environmental sciences. The course will include advanced activities incorporating field-based exercises, GIS analyses, statistical analyses, and database management. Students will also complete an independent project focused on a relevant topic. Local field trips during lab and on weekends may be required.

Prerequisite(s): MTH 105, GEO 100, GEO 102, and ENV 100; or Permission of Instructor.

ENV 350 Principles of Environmental Toxicology 3 Credits

A comprehensive description of the important principles of toxicology, including the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of toxic substances. Target organs systems will be discussed as well as mechanisms of carcinogensis and teratogenesis. Specific groups of toxins to be discussed include: pesticides, metals, radiation, solvents and vapors, and plant and animal toxins. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite(s): BCH 225 or CHE 211, BIO 115 or BIO 117.

ENV 375 Environmental Biogeochemistry 3 Credits

This course examines the biogeochemical interactions among various environmental components, including water, rock, soil, organisms, and atmosphere. Covered topics focus on the relation between the biosphere and changes in the Earth’s environment and atmosphere. The transfer of energy and nutrients within terrestrial ecosystems also is explored. Case studies from various examples will be used to understand ecosystem dynamics. Long-term environmental change and present-day ecosystem restoration activities are examined in the context of biotic offsets and land-use planning. The biogeochemical cycles of some environmentally sensitive compounds and elements in natural systems, such pesticides, mercury, and lead, also may be examined. Three hours of lecture per week.

Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 or GEO 113, CHE 120, CHE 121, CHE 122, CHE 123.

ENV 480 Senior Thesis 3 Credits

A senior thesis is optional for environmental science majors. However, a senior thesis is required for eligibility to graduate with honors in environmental science. The topic for investigation will be chosen by the student in consultation with the faculty of the Department of Geological, Environmental, and Marine Sciences. The student must initiate consideration of a proposal to the Department. The proposal must contain a discussion of the proposed project and a timetable to be followed in the study. A departmental committee consisting of a major and minor advisor will evaluate the written paper submitted at the conclusion of the study. An oral presentation before the department at the conclusion of the semester in which the study is completed is required. Proposals must be submitted in final form no later than the end of the ninth week of the semester prior to the semester in which the study is undertaken.

Prerequisite(s): senior standing in the geosciences major and permission of instructor.

ENV 490 Independent Research and Study 1-4 Credits

Immerses the student in field or laboratory research. The student learns to organize material, use the literature, make precise measurements, and obtain reproducible data. If possible, the student will publish the results or present them at a scientific meeting.

ENV 491 Internship in Environmental Sciences 1-4 Credits

A supervised work experience in an approved organization where qualified students gain real-world knowledge and utilize their academic training in a professional environment. Placements may be in private, public, non-profit, or governmental organizations. These can include consulting firms, regulatory agencies, advocacy groups, and educational or research institutions. Normally, 50 hours of internship per credit is required. A mutually agreed upon method of evaluation will be formalized prior to the approval of the internship by the sponsoring faculty and could include a term paper or project report and a poster presentation.

Prerequisite(s): 2.5 GPA and permission of instructor.

GEO 100 Earth Systems Science 3 Credits

Investigates the major global processes that occur on Earth. These processes can be grouped into four major systems: atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and cosmosphere. Each system interacts with and affects the other systems creating, in a sense, a single Earth process. With this approach, the student will view the Earth as a whole, and understand that the many seemingly separate components that make up this planet are, in fact, a set of interacting processes, that operate in cycles through time, within a single global system. Three hours of lecture per week.

GEO 102 Earth Materials and Processes Lab 1 Credits

A hands-on laboratory experience involving the origin, significance, identification, and classification of Earth materials and processes. Mineral and rock specimens, soil and water samples, and topographic and geologic maps are utilized. Numerous field trips to local sites help students visualize many of the concepts discussed. One three-hour lab per week.

Prerequisite(s): concurrent enrollment in, or prior completion of, GEO 100 or GEO 113 is required.

GEO 113 Environmental Geology (also cross listed as GLS-113) 3 Credits

Examines the fundamental premise that “our society exists by geologic consent subject to change without notice” by studying a number of important geologic processes and cycles, and the hazards and/or resources they present to individuals, society, and the natural environment. Topics discussed include earthquakes, volcanism, stream flooding, coastal erosion, climate change, and water, soil, mineral, and energy resources. Cost/benefit considerations, hazard mitigation concepts, economic and political ramifications, and the interactions among the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere also are presented. The course is designed to give non-science majors a deeper appreciation of their connection to the surrounding geologic environment, leading to better, more informed business, political, policy, and personal decisions. Three hours of lecture per week. Note: This course is cross-listed as GLS 113. Students may not get credit for both GEO 113 and GLS 113.

GEO 168 Mesozoic Ruling Reptiles 3 Credits

A survey of the vertebrate groups that dominated the land (Dinosaurs), the seas (Mosasaurs, Plesiosaurs, Pliosaurs, Tylosaurs, and Ichthyosaurs) and the skies (Pterosaurs, Pterdactyls) during the Mesozoic Era. The course considers diversity of skeletal architectures and their reconstructed function and the often controversial, inferred anatomy, physiology, reproductive strategy, habit, and social behaviors of these animals that are different from mainstream reptiles, birds, and mammals. It also covers the paleogeographical, and paleoclimatological conditions that facilitated the evolutionary rise to dominance and diversification of these vertebrate groups and the debated causes of their eventual extinction. Three hours of lecture per week. Weekend field trips may be required.

GEO 201 Elements of Mineralogy 4 Credits

The physical properties, chemistry, atomic structure, crystallography, uses, and environmental impacts of important minerals of the lithosphere and biosphere are presented. In addition, lab assignments and exercises emphasize crystal symmetry and chemistry; polarizing microscope, ICP, and x-ray analytical techniques; the graphical display and interpretation of compositional data; optical properties of isotropic and uniaxial minerals; and the identification of mineral hand specimens. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. At least one weekend field trip required. Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 or GEO 113, CHE 120, CHE 121 taken prior or concurrently; or permission of instructor.

Corequisite(s): GEO 201L,.

GEO 201L Elements of Minerology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): GEO 201.

GEO 290 Directed Research and Study in Geosciences 1-4 Credits

Directed Research and Study in Geosciences will provide an opportunity for freshman and sophomore students to gain hands-on research experience in the geosciences. This is an individual program of study and each student will work with a selected faculty member on a topic of mutual interest. The course consists of a combination of project meetings, supervised research, and guided readings. The focus will be on formulating research questions, designing and conducting experiments, collecting the necessary data, reviewing the scientific literature as it relates to each student’s research topic in a weekly meetings with the instructor, and communicating the findings by writing a final project report.

GEO 305 Petrology and Petrography 4 Credits

The origin, evolution, and terrestrial distribution of igneous and metamorphic rocks are presented and detailed. Classroom lectures and discussions emphasize rock geochemistry, mineralogic variability, the constraints placed on petrogenetic models by physio-chemical studies of natural and synthetic systems, and the relation of the various rock types to current plate tectonic theory and other whole-earth processes. The laboratory emphasizes the continuing development of optical microscopy skills, the identification of rock texture and mineralogy in thin section and hand specimen, the optical determination of mineral composition, and the recognition of possible petrogenetic processes as recorded in the rocks themselves. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Two weekend field trips required. Prerequisite(s): GEO 201, and CHE 122 and CHE 123 or taken prior or concurrently; or permission of instructor.

Corequisite(s): GEO 305L.

GEO 305L Petrology and Petrography Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): GEO 305.

GEO 306 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 4 Credits

The principles of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition of sediment are the focus of this course. Sediment characteristics are examined to identify the processes involved in transporting grains and the specific environment in which the grains were deposited. Students will learn how to collect, analyze, and interpret sedimentary data and how to interpret surface and subsurface stratigraphic data using various techniques, such as lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and geophysical, correlations. Field trips will expose students to different sedimentary environments and provide opportunities for students to learn how to conduct fieldwork. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Weekend field trips may be required. Prerequisite(s): GEO 100.

Corequisite(s): GEO 306L.

GEO 306L Sedimentology and Stratigraphy Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): GEO 306.

GEO 310 Structural Geology 4 Credits

The origin, distinguishing characteristics, and geographic distribution of deformational structures of the Earth’s crust. In the laboratory, GPS, GIS, geologic maps, and three-dimensional problems are used in the study of typical surface and subsurface geologic problems. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Weekday and/or weekend field trips may be required. Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 or GEO 113, GEO 102.

Corequisite(s): GEO 310L.

GEO 310L Structural Geology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): GEO 310.

GEO 350 Soil and Surficial Processes 4 Credits

This course examines the physical, chemical, hydrological, and biological aspects of soil and their relation to geomorphologic development. Specific topics include descriptions of soil texture and structures, soil classification, soil colloids, soil redox and pH, and their effect on vadose zone water chemistry. Soil genesis and erosion controls, microbiology/ecology, nutrient cycles, and modern soil pollution from sludge and pesticide applications, as well as domestic and industrial chemical spills, also are discussed. The lab portion of the course introduces the basic techniques of soil analysis, both physical and chemical, and field survey methods. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 or GEO 113, and GEO 102.

Corequisite(s): GEO 350L.

GEO 350L Soil and Surficial Processes Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): GEO 350.

GEO 407 Hydrology and Water Resources 4 Credits

This course introduces the principles that govern both surface water and groundwater flows that have applications to societal water needs. Surface water topics cover the basics of the hydrologic cycle, the processes of precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration, and various factors affecting water supply and water quality issues in a modern watershed. Groundwater topics examine the principles that govern flow through a porous medium and the basics of well hydraulics under different pumping conditions that community development requires. Laboratory exercises will give students hands-on experience with the delineation of watersheds, analysis of precipitation data, and flow contaminant transport modeling. The field portion of the laboratory includes runoff and stream discharge measurements, as well as hydraulic conductivity estimations from both slug and pumping tests. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 or GEO 113, GEO 102, and MTH 105.

Corequisite(s): GEO 407L.

GEO 407L Hydrology and Water Resources Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): GEO 407.

GEO 480 Senior Thesis 3 Credits

A senior thesis is optional for geosciences majors. However, a senior thesis is required for eligibility to graduate with honors in geosciences. The topic for investigation will be chosen by the student in consultation with the faculty of the Department of Geological, Environmental, and Marine Sciences. The student must initiate consideration of a proposal to the Department. The proposal must contain a discussion of the proposed project and a timetable to be followed in the study. A departmental committee consisting of a major and minor advisor will evaluate the written paper submitted at the conclusion of the study or other approved venue. An oral presentation before the department at the conclusion of the semester in which the study is completed is required. Proposals must be submitted in final form no later than the end of the ninth week of the semester prior to the semester in which the study is undertaken.

Prerequisite(s): senior standing in the geosciences major and permission of instructor.

GEO 490 Independent Research and Study 1-4 Credits

Immerses the student in field or laboratory research. The student learns to organize material, use the literature, make precise measurements, and obtain reproducible data. If possible, the student will publish the results or present them at a scientific meeting.

GEO 491 Internship in Geosciences 1-4 Credits

A supervised work experience in an approved organization where qualified students gain real-world knowledge and utilize their academic training in a professional environment. Placements may be in private, public, non-profit, or governmental organizations. These can include consulting firms, regulatory agencies, advocacy groups, and educational or research institutions. Normally, 50 hours of internship per credit is required. A mutually agreed upon method of evaluation will be formalized prior to the approval of the internship by the sponsoring faculty and could include a term paper or project report and a poster presentation.

Prerequisite(s): 2.5 GPA and permission of instructor.

MAR 120 Oceanography 3 Credits

Investigates the interrelationships among the geological, chemical, physical, and biological aspects of oceanography. Topics include origin and evolution of ocean basins; physical characteristics of modern oceans; seawater chemistry; ocean and atmosphere interactions; ocean currents; waves and tides; coastal processes; biological productivity; and diversity, distribution and adaptations of marine organisms. Throughout the course, emphasis is placed on the processes that connect the seemingly separate topics to each other and to human life. Weekend field trips may be required. Three hours of lecture per week. Note: This course is cross-listed as GLS 120. Students may not get credit for both MAR 120 and GLS 120.

MAR 121 Introductory Oceanography Lab 1 Credits

Introduction to the fundamental aspects of geological, chemical, physical, and biological oceanography. Students learn through inquiry-based, hands-on exercises and activities using actual data collected in the lab and in the field. Independent projects and local field trips during lab and on weekends may be required. One three-hour lab per week.

Corequisite(s): MAR 120 or GLS 120 or as prerequisite(s).

MAR 210 Marine Life Through Time 4 Credits

Survey of the important developments in marine life over the last three billion years from the Pre-Cambrian evolution of one-celled organisms, through the Cambrian explosion of complex marine invertebrate life and subsequent diversification of backboned organisms in the Ordovician time, to the colonization of marginal marine and freshwater habitats in the Silurian-Devonian geological periods, and ultimately to extinctions during global crises of the late Devonian, Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous, and Pleistocene time intervals. The emphasis is on evolutionary adaptive breakthroughs within each phylum, particularly the significant morphological and anatomical innovations, and the subsequent radiation of these higher taxa into new habitats and niches through geologic time. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week.

Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 or GEO 113, GEO 102 or BIO 115 or permission of instructor.

MAR 210L Marine Life Through Time Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): MAR 210.

MAR 227 Introduction to Field Marine Science: Subtropical Environments 4 Credits

In this two-week field course, students will explore various topics in marine science through practical, hands-on, inquiry-based exercises and activities. The course will focus on the biological, geological, chemical, and physical processes that influence diverse marine flora and fauna found in subtropical environments, emphasizing shallow subtidal and intertidal environments such as coral reefs, sandy beaches, turtle grass beds, rocky intertidal pools, and mangrove swamps. Examples of topics include the diversity, abundance, size, zonation, and morphological adaptations of marine organisms; the composition and texture of sediments; and the physical processes and chemical properties of water. These topics will be examined using field team exercises, a group mapping project, and individual research projects. Activities will help students develop their skills in research, use of field and laboratory equipment, computer analysis of data, and scientific writing. The course is taught at an appropriate marine field station located in a subtropical environment. Field portion of course is completed during the summer. Additional travel costs vary, depending on location.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 115 or BIO 116, and permission of instructor.

MAR 228 Introduction to Field Marine Science: Boreal Environments 4 Credits

In this two-week field course, students will explore various topics in marine science through practical, hands-on, inquiry-based exercises and activities. The course will focus on the biological, geological, chemical, and physical processes that influence diverse marine flora and fauna found in boreal environments, emphasizing the rocky shallow subtidal and intertidal environments. Examples of topics include diversity, abundance, size, zonation, and morphological adaptations of marine organisms; day-night fluctuations in tide pool chemistry; plankton dynamics; predator-prey relationships; the physical processes and chemical properties of water; and comparisons of wave-exposed and wave-protected sides of a shoreline. These topics will be examined using field team exercises, a group mapping project, and individual research projects. Activities will help students develop their skills in research, use of field and laboratory equipment, computer analysis of data, and scientific writing. The course is taught at an appropriate marine field station located in a boreal environment. Field portion of course is completed during the summer. Additional travel costs vary, depending on location.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 115 or BIO 116, and permission of instructor.

MAR 229 Introduction to Field Marine Science: Tropical Environments 4 Credits

In this two-week field course, students will explore various topics in marine science through practical, hands-on, inquiry-based exercises and activities. The course will focus on the biological, geological, chemical, and physical processes that influence diverse marine flora and fauna found in tropical environments, emphasizing the shallow subtidal and intertidal environments, such as coral reefs, sandy beaches, turtle grass beds, rocky intertidal pools, and mangrove swamps. Examples of topics include diversity, abundance, size, zonation, and morphological adaptations of marine organisms; the composition and texture of sediments; and the physical processes and chemical properties of water. These topics will be examined using field team exercises, a group mapping project, and individual research projects. Activities will help students develop their skills in research, use of field and laboratory equipment, computer analysis of data, and scientific writing. The course is taught at an appropriate marine field station located in a tropical environment. Field portion of course is completed during the summer. Additional travel costs vary, depending on location.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 115 or BIO 116, and permission of instructor.

MAR 290 Directed Research and Study in Marine Sciences 1-4 Credits

Provides an opportunity for freshman and sophomore students to gain hands-on research experience in the marine sciences. This is an individual program of study and each student will work with a selected faculty member on a topic of mutual interest. The course consists of a combination of project meetings, supervised research, and guided readings. The focus will be on formulating research questions, designing and conducting experiments, collecting the necessary data, reviewing the scientific literature as it relates to each student’s research topic in a weekly meetings with the instructor, and communicating the findings by writing a final project report.

MAR 325 Marine Vertebrates 4 Credits

A survey of the biology of marine vertebrate animals, including fish (jawless fish, sharks, rays, and bony fish), reptiles (sea turtles and sea snakes), sea birds, and mammals (manatees, seals, and whales). The evolution, physiology, natural history, ecological relationships, and human interactions of these groups are emphasized. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Field trips may be required. Prerequisite(s): BIO 272 and BIO 272L.

Corequisite(s): MAR 325L.

MAR 325L Marine Vertebrates Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): MAR 325.

MAR 330 Chemical Oceanography 4 Credits

Introduction to the chemical aspects of the oceans and their influence on marine ecosystems and Earth processes. Emphasis is placed on chemical and physical properties of seawater, atmosphere-ocean interactions, biogeochemical cycles with marine components, production and destruction of marine organic matter, chemical ecology, and marine pollution. During the lab portion of this course, students gain hands-on experience in analyzing ocean water samples, experimental design, and interpreting marine chemical data. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Weekend field trips and independent projects may be required. Prerequisite(s): CHE 120, CHE 121, MAR 120, and MAR 121; or permission of instructor.

Corequisite(s): MAR 330L.

MAR 330L Chemical Oceanography Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): MAR 330.

MAR 340 Marine Processes and Environments: Seminar 3 Credits

This course is designed as a seminar course. Therefore, students will learn to lead class discussions, to analyze and critique peer-reviewed journal articles, and to enhance their presentation skills. Students will interpret graphical, spatial, and numerical data to support their positions. Content will emphasize the interactions among marine processes, biological features, and geologic landforms.

Prerequisite(s): MAR 120 or GEO 100; GEO 306.

MAR 360 Plankton Ecology 4 Credits

Examines the diversity, physiology, and ecology of marine phytoplankton and zooplankton. Students will survey the dominant plankton groups, their distribution, nutritional requirements, growth kinetics, and behavior. Planktonic predator/prey interactions and food web dynamics will be discussed. Students will also examine the interdisciplinary nature and role of plankton in biogeochemical cycles. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Weekend field trips may be required. Prerequisite(s): MAR 120 and MAR 121; or BIO 116.

Corequisite(s): MAR 360L.

MAR 360L Plankton Ecology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): MAR 360.

MAR 380 The Learning and Teaching of Marine Science 4 Credits

This field-based course provides a practical experience in integrating marine science with pedagogical concepts. Students will use scientific methodology to explain marine ecosystems through specially designed, inquiry-based exercises. During these activities, students will address the process of applying college-level content to their own classroom settings, considering national and state standards. Hands-on, field-based exercises will provide experience with a diversity of marine habitats and the biological, geological, hydrological, and physical processes that influence them. Visited habitats can include rocky intertidal, salt marsh, tidal flat, beach and channel sand bars. As a result, students will develop field and laboratory skills in marine science and use them in designing materials for their own classroom use.

MAR 401 Marine Ecology 4 Credits

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to fundamental principles in ecology, as it relates to marine systems. Topics include the marine environment and its influence on the organisms living there; biodiversity and speciation; factors regulating population dynamics in marine systems; larval and fisheries ecology; species interactions such as predation, competition, and symbiosis; factors regulating productivity and energy flow in marine systems; and marine conservation. Hands-on laboratory exercises will provide students with the opportunity to design and conduct experiments related to marine ecology, and to collect, analyze, and interpret data from those experiments. Ecosystem modeling will also be introduced. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour lab per week. Weekend field trips may be introduced. Prerequisite(s): BIO 272, BIO 272L.

Corequisite(s): MAR 401L.

MAR 401L Marine Ecology Lab 0 Credits

This lab is a co-requisite and must be taken with the corresponding course.

Corequisite(s): MAR 401.

MAR 410 Physical Oceanography 3 Credits

Introduction to the physical aspects and processes of the oceans and their influence on marine ecosystems and Earth processes. Topics include distribution of salinity and water temperature and their effect on water movement, the oceanic heat budget, atmospheric and oceanic interactions, ocean currents including surface and deep water circulation, waves, tides, and medium- to small-scale circulation features. Throughout the course, emphasis is placed on how these physical processes affect the biology and chemistry of the ocean. Three hours of lecture per week. Weekend field trips may be required.

Prerequisite(s): MAR 120.

MAR 480 Senior Thesis 3 Credits

A senior thesis is optional for marine sciences majors. However, a senior thesis is required for eligibility to graduate with honors in marine sciences. The topic for investigation will be chosen by the student in consultation with the faculty of the Department of Geological, Environmental, and Marine Sciences. The student must initiate consideration of a proposal to the Department. The proposal must contain a discussion of the proposed project and a timetable to be followed in the study. A departmental committee consisting of a major and minor advisor will evaluate the written paper submitted at the conclusion of the study or other approved venue. An oral presentation before the department at the conclusion of the semester in which the study is completed is required. Proposals must be submitted in final form no later than the end of the ninth week of the semester prior to the semester in which the study is undertaken.

Prerequisite(s): senior standing in the marine sciences major and permission of department chair.

MAR 490 Independent Research and Study 1-4 Credits

Immerses the student in field or laboratory research. The student learns to organize material, use the literature, make precise measurements, and obtain reproducible data. If possible, the student will publish the results or present them at a scientific meeting.

MAR 491 Internship in Marine Sciences 1-4 Credits

A supervised work experience in an approved organization where qualified students gain real-world knowledge and utilize their academic training in a professional environment. Placements may be in private, public, non-profit, or governmental organizations. These can include consulting firms, regulatory agencies, advocacy groups, and educational or research institutions. Normally, 50 hours of internship per credit is required. A mutually agreed upon method of evaluation will be formalized prior to the approval of the internship by the sponsoring faculty and could include a term paper or project report and a poster presentation.

Prerequisite(s): 2.5 GPA and permission of instructor.

MAR 580 Ind Marine Sci Field Study 4 Credits

This field-based course provides a practical experience in integrating marine science with pedagogical concepts. Students will use scientific methodology to explain marine ecosystems through specially designed, inquiry-based exercises. During these activities, students will address the process of applying college-level content to their own classroom settings, considering national and state standards. Hands-on, field-based exercises will provide experience with a diversity of marine habitats and the biological, geological, hydrological, and physical processes that influence them. Visited habitats can include rocky intertidal, salt marsh, tidal flat, beach and channel sand bars. As a result, students will develop field and laboratory skills in marine science and use them in designing materials for their own classroom use.